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By Qualfiber | 07 April 2019 | 0 Comments

How GPON Works A GPON network is capable of transmitting ethernet, TDM (Time Division Multiplexing)

A GPON network is capable of transmitting ethernet, TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) as
well as ATM traffic. A GPON network consists of OLT (Optical Line Terminals), ONU (Optical
Network Unit), and a splitter. The splitter will divide the signal when needed. The OLT takes
in all of the optical signals in the form of beams of light from ONUs and will convert it to an
electrical signal. OLTs normally support up to 72 ports. An ONU connects to end users and
will send their signals back to the OLT. A GPON network can reach up to 20 km and provide
service up to 64 end users. GPON utilizes both upstream and downstream data by means of
Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM).

In downstream transmission, the lasers wavelength measures 1490 nm while the upstream
wavelength measures 1550 nm. A single mode optical fiber coming from a central office,
runs to a passive optical power splitter located near end users’ locations. The optical splitter
will then divide power into separate paths which can range from two to sixty four. From the
optical splitter, separate single mode fiber strands will run directly to the end user’s home,
business, school, etc. This transmission can reach up to 20 km starting from the central office
running to the user. With GPON transmitting downstream in a broadcast manner and upstream
in a TDMA (time division multiple access) manner, different bit rates are possible with 1.2 Gbit/s
in upstream and 2.4 Gbit/s in downstream is most common.

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